MySQL Reference Manual for version 4.1.7.

Table of Contents

1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual Conventions Used in This Manual
1.2. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System History of MySQL The Main Features of MySQL MySQL Stability How Big MySQL Tables Can Be Year 2000 Compliance
1.3. Overview of MySQL AB The Business Model and Services of MySQL AB Contact Information
1.4. MySQL Support and Licensing Support Offered by MySQL AB Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL MySQL Licenses MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks
1.5. MySQL Development Roadmap MySQL 4.0 in a Nutshell MySQL 4.1 in a Nutshell MySQL 5.0: The Next Development Release
1.6. MySQL and the Future (the TODO) New Features Planned for 5.0 New Features Planned for 5.1 New Features Planned for the Near Future New Features Planned for the Mid-Term Future New Features We Don't Plan to Implement
1.7. MySQL Information Sources MySQL Mailing Lists MySQL Community Support on IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
1.8. MySQL Standards Compliance What Standards MySQL Follows Selecting SQL Modes Running MySQL in ANSI Mode MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL MySQL Differences from Standard SQL How MySQL Deals with Constraints Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL
2. Installing MySQL
2.1. General Installation Issues Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install How to Get MySQL Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG Installation Layouts
2.2. Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution Installing MySQL on Windows Installing MySQL on Linux Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Installing MySQL on NetWare Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems
2.3. MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution Source Installation Overview Typical configure Options Installing from the Development Source Tree Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL MIT-pthreads Notes Installing MySQL from Source on Windows Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
2.4. Post-Installation Setup and Testing Windows Post-Installation Procedures Unix Post-Installation Procedures Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.5. Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL Upgrading from Version 4.1 to 5.0 Upgrading from Version 4.0 to 4.1 Upgrading from Version 3.23 to 4.0 Upgrading from Version 3.22 to 3.23 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to 3.22 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21 Upgrading MySQL Under Windows Upgrading the Grant Tables Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.6. Operating System-Specific Notes Linux Notes Mac OS X Notes Solaris Notes BSD Notes Other Unix Notes OS/2 Notes BeOS Notes
2.7. Perl Installation Notes Installing Perl on Unix Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. MySQL Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database Creating and Selecting a Database Creating a Table Loading Data into a Table Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries The Maximum Value for a Column The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column Maximum of Column per Group The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field Using User Variables Using Foreign Keys Searching on Two Keys Calculating Visits Per Day Using AUTO_INCREMENT
3.7. Queries from the Twin Project Find All Non-distributed Twins Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
3.8. Using MySQL with Apache
4. Using MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.3. Specifying Program Options Using Options on the Command Line Using Option Files Using Environment Variables to Specify Options Using Options to Set Program Variables
5. Database Administration
5.1. The MySQL Server and Server Startup Scripts Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script The mysql.server Server Startup Script The mysqld_multi Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers
5.2. Configuring the MySQL Server mysqld Command-Line Options The Server SQL Mode Server System Variables Server Status Variables
5.3. The MySQL Server Shutdown Process
5.4. General Security Issues General Security Guidelines Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
5.5. The MySQL Access Privilege System What the Privilege System Does How the Privilege System Works Privileges Provided by MySQL Connecting to the MySQL Server Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification When Privilege Changes Take Effect Causes of Access denied Errors Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1
5.6. MySQL User Account Management MySQL Usernames and Passwords Adding New User Accounts to MySQL Removing User Accounts from MySQL Limiting Account Resources Assigning Account Passwords Keeping Your Password Secure Using Secure Connections
5.7. Disaster Prevention and Recovery Database Backups Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery Setting Up a Table Maintenance Schedule Getting Information About a Table
5.8. MySQL Localization and International Usage The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting Setting the Error Message Language Adding a New Character Set The Character Definition Arrays String Collating Support Multi-Byte Character Support Problems With Character Sets MySQL Server Time Zone Support
5.9. The MySQL Log Files The Error Log The General Query Log The Update Log The Binary Log The Slow Query Log Log File Maintenance
5.10. Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine Running Multiple Servers on Windows Running Multiple Servers on Unix Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.11. The MySQL Query Cache How the Query Cache Operates Query Cache SELECT Options Query Cache Configuration Query Cache Status and Maintenance
6. Replication in MySQL
6.1. Introduction to Replication
6.2. Replication Implementation Overview
6.3. Replication Implementation Details Replication Master Thread States Replication Slave I/O Thread States Replication Slave SQL Thread States Replication Relay and Status Files
6.4. How to Set Up Replication
6.5. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
6.6. Upgrading a Replication Setup Upgrading Replication to 4.0 or 4.1 Upgrading Replication to 5.0
6.7. Replication Features and Known Problems
6.8. Replication Startup Options
6.9. Replication FAQ
6.10. Troubleshooting Replication
6.11. Reporting Replication Bugs
7. MySQL Optimization
7.1. Optimization Overview MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs Designing Applications for Portability What We Have Used MySQL For The MySQL Benchmark Suite Using Your Own Benchmarks
7.2. Optimizing SELECT Statements and Other Queries EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a SELECT) Estimating Query Performance Speed of SELECT Queries How MySQL Optimizes WHERE Clauses Range Optimization Index Merge Optimization How MySQL Optimizes IS NULL How MySQL Optimizes DISTINCT How MySQL Optimizes LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN How MySQL Optimizes ORDER BY How MySQL Optimizes GROUP BY How MySQL Optimizes LIMIT How to Avoid Table Scans Speed of INSERT Statements Speed of UPDATE Statements Speed of DELETE Statements Other Optimization Tips
7.3. Locking Issues Locking Methods Table Locking Issues
7.4. Optimizing Database Structure Design Choices Make Your Data as Small as Possible Column Indexes Multiple-Column Indexes How MySQL Uses Indexes The MyISAM Key Cache How MySQL Counts Open Tables How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables Drawbacks to Creating Many Tables in the Same Database
7.5. Optimizing the MySQL Server System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning Tuning Server Parameters Controlling Query Optimizer Performance How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL How MySQL Uses Memory How MySQL Uses DNS
7.6. Disk Issues Using Symbolic Links
8. MySQL Client and Utility Programs
8.1. Overview of the Client-Side Scripts and Utilities
8.2. myisampack, the MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator
8.3. mysql, the Command-Line Tool mysql Commands Executing SQL Statements from a Text File mysql Tips
8.4. mysqladmin, Administering a MySQL Server
8.5. The mysqlbinlog Binary Log Utility
8.6. mysqlcc, the MySQL Control Center
8.7. The mysqlcheck Table Maintenance and Repair Program
8.8. The mysqldump Database Backup Program
8.9. The mysqlhotcopy Database Backup Program
8.10. The mysqlimport Data Import Program
8.11. mysqlshow, Showing Databases, Tables, and Columns
8.12. perror, Explaining Error Codes
8.13. The replace String-Replacement Utility
9. MySQL Language Reference
10. Language Structure
10.1. Literal Values Strings Numbers Hexadecimal Values Boolean Values NULL Values
10.2. Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names Identifier Qualifiers Identifier Case Sensitivity
10.3. User Variables
10.4. System Variables Structured System Variables
10.5. Comment Syntax
10.6. Treatment of Reserved Words in MySQL
11. Character Set Support
11.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
11.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
11.3. Determining the Default Character Set and Collation Server Character Set and Collation Database Character Set and Collation Table Character Set and Collation Column Character Set and Collation Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment Connection Character Sets and Collations Character String Literal Character Set and Collation Using COLLATE in SQL Statements COLLATE Clause Precedence BINARY Operator Some Special Cases Where the Collation Determination Is Tricky Collations Must Be for the Right Character Set An Example of the Effect of Collation
11.4. Operations Affected by Character Set Support Result Strings CONVERT() CAST() SHOW Statements
11.5. Unicode Support
11.6. UTF8 for Metadata
11.7. Compatibility with Other DBMSs
11.8. New Character Set Configuration File Format
11.9. National Character Set
11.10. Upgrading Character Sets from MySQL 4.0 4.0 Character Sets and Corresponding 4.1 Character Set/Collation Pairs Converting 4.0 Character Columns to 4.1 Format
11.11. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports Unicode Character Sets West European Character Sets Central European Character Sets South European and Middle East Character Sets Baltic Character Sets Cyrillic Character Sets Asian Character Sets
12. Column Types
12.1. Column Type Overview Overview of Numeric Types Overview of Date and Time Types Overview of String Types
12.2. Numeric Types
12.3. Date and Time Types The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types The TIME Type The YEAR Type Y2K Issues and Date Types
12.4. String Types The CHAR and VARCHAR Types The BLOB and TEXT Types The ENUM Type The SET Type
12.5. Column Type Storage Requirements
12.6. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
12.7. Using Column Types from Other Database Engines
13. Functions and Operators
13.1. Operators Operator Precedence Parentheses Comparison Functions and Operators Logical Operators
13.2. Control Flow Functions
13.3. String Functions String Comparison Functions
13.4. Numeric Functions Arithmetic Operators Mathematical Functions
13.5. Date and Time Functions
13.6. Full-Text Search Functions Boolean Full-Text Searches Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion Full-Text Restrictions Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search Full-Text Search TODO
13.7. Cast Functions and Operators
13.8. Other Functions Bit Functions Encryption Functions Information Functions Miscellaneous Functions
13.9. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions GROUP BY Modifiers GROUP BY with Hidden Fields
14. SQL Statement Syntax
14.1. Data Manipulation Statements DELETE Syntax DO Syntax HANDLER Syntax INSERT Syntax LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax REPLACE Syntax SELECT Syntax Subquery Syntax TRUNCATE Syntax UPDATE Syntax
14.3. MySQL Utility Statements DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About Columns) USE Syntax
14.4. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit SAVEPOINT and ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT Syntax LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax SET TRANSACTION Syntax
14.5. Database Administration Statements Account Management Statements Table Maintenance Statements SET and SHOW Syntax Other Administrative Statements
14.6. Replication Statements SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
14.7. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
15. MySQL Storage Engines and Table Types
15.1. The MyISAM Storage Engine MyISAM Startup Options Space Needed for Keys MyISAM Table Storage Formats MyISAM Table Problems
15.2. The MERGE Storage Engine MERGE Table Problems
15.3. The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine
15.4. The BDB (BerkeleyDB) Storage Engine Operating Systems Supported by BDB Installing BDB BDB Startup Options Characteristics of BDB Tables Things We Need to Fix for BDB Restrictions on BDB Tables Errors That May Occur When Using BDB Tables
15.5. The ISAM Storage Engine
16. The InnoDB Storage Engine
16.1. InnoDB Overview
16.2. InnoDB Contact Information
16.3. InnoDB in MySQL 3.23
16.4. InnoDB Configuration
16.5. InnoDB Startup Options
16.6. Creating the InnoDB Tablespace Dealing with InnoDB Initialization Problems
16.7. Creating InnoDB Tables How to Use Transactions in InnoDB with Different APIs Converting MyISAM Tables to InnoDB How an AUTO_INCREMENT Column Works in InnoDB FOREIGN KEY Constraints InnoDB and MySQL Replication Using Per-Table Tablespaces
16.8. Adding and Removing InnoDB Data and Log Files
16.9. Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database Forcing Recovery Checkpoints
16.10. Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
16.11. InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking InnoDB and AUTOCOMMIT InnoDB and TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL Consistent Non-Locking Read Locking Reads SELECT ... FOR UPDATE and SELECT ... LOCK IN SHARE MODE Next-Key Locking: Avoiding the Phantom Problem An Example of How the Consistent Read Works in InnoDB Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB When Does MySQL Implicitly Commit or Roll Back a Transaction? Deadlock Detection and Rollback How to Cope with Deadlocks
16.12. InnoDB Performance Tuning Tips SHOW INNODB STATUS and the InnoDB Monitors
16.13. Implementation of Multi-Versioning
16.14. Table and Index Structures Physical Structure of an Index Insert Buffering Adaptive Hash Indexes Physical Record Structure
16.15. File Space Management and Disk I/O Disk I/O Using Raw Devices for the Tablespace File Space Management Defragmenting a Table
16.16. Error Handling InnoDB Error Codes Operating System Error Codes
16.17. Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
16.18. InnoDB Troubleshooting Troubleshooting InnoDB Data Dictionary Operations
17. MySQL Cluster
17.1. MySQL Cluster Overview
17.2. Basic MySQL Cluster Concepts
17.3. MySQL Cluster Configuration Building from Source Code Installing the Software Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster Configuration File
17.4. Process Management in MySQL Cluster MySQL Server Process Usage for MySQL Cluster ndbd, the Storage Engine Node Process ndb_mgmd, the Management Server Process ndb_mgm, the Management Client Process Command Options for MySQL Cluster Processes
17.5. Management of MySQL Cluster Commands in the Management Client Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster Single User Mode On-line Backup of MySQL Cluster
17.6. Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster Configuring MySQL Cluster to use SCI Sockets Low-level benchmarks to understand impact of cluster interconnects
18. Introduction to MaxDB
18.1. History of MaxDB
18.2. Licensing and Support
18.3. MaxDB-Related Links
18.4. Basic Concepts of MaxDB
18.5. Feature Differences Between MaxDB and MySQL
18.6. Interoperability Features Between MaxDB and MySQL
18.7. Reserved Words in MaxDB
19. Spatial Extensions in MySQL
19.1. Introduction
19.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model The Geometry Class Hierarchy Class Geometry Class Point Class Curve Class LineString Class Surface Class Polygon Class GeometryCollection Class MultiPoint Class MultiCurve Class MultiLineString Class MultiSurface Class MultiPolygon
19.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats Well-Known Text (WKT) Format Well-Known Binary (WKB) Format
19.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database MySQL Spatial Data Types Creating Spatial Values Creating Spatial Columns Populating Spatial Columns Fetching Spatial Data
19.5. Analyzing Spatial Information Geometry Format Conversion Functions Geometry Functions Functions That Create New Geometries from Existing Ones Functions for Testing Spatial Relations Between Geometric Objects Relations on Geometry Minimal Bounding Rectangles (MBRs) Functions That Test Spatial Relationships Between Geometries
19.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis Creating Spatial Indexes Using a Spatial Index
19.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility GIS Features That Are Not Yet Implemented
20. Stored Procedures and Functions
20.1. Stored Procedure Syntax Maintaining Stored Procedures SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS and SHOW FUNCTION STATUS CALL Statement BEGIN ... END Compound Statement DECLARE Statement Variables in Stored Procedures Conditions and Handlers Cursors Flow Control Constructs
21. MySQL APIs
21.1. MySQL Program Development Utilities msql2mysql, Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL mysql_config, Get compile options for compiling clients
21.2. MySQL C API C API Data types C API Function Overview C API Function Descriptions C API Prepared Statements C API Prepared Statement Data types C API Prepared Statement Function Overview C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions C API Handling of Multiple Query Execution C API Handling of Date and Time Values C API Threaded Function Descriptions C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions Common questions and problems when using the C API Building Client Programs How to Make a Threaded Client libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
21.3. MySQL PHP API Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
21.4. MySQL Perl API
21.5. MySQL C++ API Borland C++
21.6. MySQL Python API
21.7. MySQL Tcl API
21.8. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
22. MySQL Connectors
22.1. MySQL ODBC Support Introduction to MyODBC General Information About ODBC and MyODBC How to Install MyODBC Installing MyODBC from a Binary Distribution on Windows Installing MyODBC from a Binary Distribution on Unix Installing MyODBC from a Source Distribution on Windows Installing MyODBC from a Source Distribution on Unix Installing MyODBC from the BitKeeper Development Source Tree MyODBC Configuration MyODBC Connection-Related Issues MyODBC and Microsoft Access MyODBC and Microsoft VBA and ASP MyODBC and Third-Party ODBC Tools MyODBC General Functionality Basic MyODBC Application Steps MyODBC API Reference MyODBC Data Types MyODBC Error Codes MyODBC With VB: ADO, DAO and RDO MyODBC with Microsoft .NET Credits
22.2. MySQL Java Connectivity (JDBC)
23. Error Handling in MySQL
24. Extending MySQL
24.1. MySQL Internals MySQL Threads MySQL Test Suite
24.2. Adding New Functions to MySQL CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION Syntax Adding a New User-defined Function Adding a New Native Function
24.3. Adding New Procedures to MySQL Procedure Analyse Writing a Procedure
A. Problems and Common Errors
How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
Access denied
Can't connect to [local] MySQL server
Client does not support authentication protocol
Password Fails When Entered Interactively
Host 'host_name' is blocked
Too many connections
Out of memory
MySQL server has gone away
Packet too large
Communication Errors and Aborted Connections
The table is full
Can't create/write to file
Commands out of sync
Ignoring user
Table 'tbl_name' doesn't exist
Can't initialize character set
File Not Found
Installation-Related Issues
Problems Linking to the MySQL Client Library
How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
Problems with File Permissions
Administration-Related Issues
How to Reset the Root Password
What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing
How MySQL Handles a Full Disk
Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files
How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File /tmp/mysql.sock
Time Zone Problems
Query-Related Issues
Case Sensitivity in Searches
Problems Using DATE Columns
Problems with NULL Values
Problems with Column Aliases
Rollback Failure for Non-Transactional Tables
Deleting Rows from Related Tables
Solving Problems with No Matching Rows
Problems with Floating-Point Comparisons
Optimizer-Related Issues
Table Definition-Related Issues
Problems with ALTER TABLE
How to Change the Order of Columns in a Table
B. Credits
Developers at MySQL AB
Contributors to MySQL
Documenters and translators
Libraries used by and included with MySQL
Packages that support MySQL
Tools that were used to create MySQL
Supporters of MySQL
C. MySQL Change History
Changes in release 5.0.x (Development)
Changes in release 5.0.2 (not released yet)
Changes in release 5.0.1 (27 Jul 2004)
Changes in release 5.0.0 (22 Dec 2003: Alpha)
Changes in release 4.1.x (Gamma)
Changes in release 4.1.8 (not released yet)
Changes in release 4.1.7 (to be released soon)
Changes in release 4.1.6 (10 Oct 2004)
Changes in release 4.1.5 (16 Sep 2004)
Changes in release 4.1.4 (26 Aug 2004: Gamma)
Changes in release 4.1.3 (28 Jun 2004: Beta)
Changes in release 4.1.2 (28 May 2004)
Changes in release 4.1.1 (01 Dec 2003)
Changes in release 4.1.0 (03 Apr 2003: Alpha)
Changes in release 4.0.x (Production)
Changes in release 4.0.22 (not released yet)
Changes in release 4.0.21 (06 Sep 2004)
Changes in release 4.0.20 (17 May 2004)
Changes in release 4.0.19 (04 May 2004)
Changes in release 4.0.18 (12 Feb 2004)
Changes in release 4.0.17 (14 Dec 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.16 (17 Oct 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.15 (03 Sep 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.14 (18 Jul 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.13 (16 May 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.12 (15 Mar 2003: Production)
Changes in release 4.0.11 (20 Feb 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.10 (29 Jan 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.9 (09 Jan 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.8 (07 Jan 2003)
Changes in release 4.0.7 (20 Dec 2002)
Changes in release 4.0.6 (14 Dec 2002: Gamma)
Changes in release 4.0.5 (13 Nov 2002)
Changes in release 4.0.4 (29 Sep 2002)
Changes in release 4.0.3 (26 Aug 2002: Beta)
Changes in release 4.0.2 (01 Jul 2002)
Changes in release 4.0.1 (23 Dec 2001)
Changes in release 4.0.0 (Oct 2001: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.23.x (Recent; still supported)
Changes in release 3.23.59 (not released yet)
Changes in release 3.23.58 (11 Sep 2003)
Changes in release 3.23.57 (06 Jun 2003)
Changes in release 3.23.56 (13 Mar 2003)
Changes in release 3.23.55 (23 Jan 2003)
Changes in release 3.23.54 (05 Dec 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.53 (09 Oct 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.52 (14 Aug 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.51 (31 May 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.50 (21 Apr 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.49 (14 Feb 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.48 (07 Feb 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.47 (27 Dec 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.46 (29 Nov 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.45 (22 Nov 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.44 (31 Oct 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.43 (04 Oct 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.42 (08 Sep 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.41 (11 Aug 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.40 (18 Jul 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.39 (12 Jun 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.38 (09 May 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.37 (17 Apr 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.36 (27 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.35 (15 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.34a (11 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.34 (10 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.33 (09 Feb 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.32 (22 Jan 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.31 (17 Jan 2001: Production)
Changes in release 3.23.30 (04 Jan 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.29 (16 Dec 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.28 (22 Nov 2000: Gamma)
Changes in release 3.23.27 (24 Oct 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.26 (18 Oct 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.25 (29 Sep 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.24 (08 Sep 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.23 (01 Sep 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.22 (31 Jul 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.21 (04 Jul 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.20 (28 Jun 2000: Beta)
Changes in release 3.23.19
Changes in release 3.23.18 (11 Jun 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.17 (07 Jun 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.16 (16 May 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.15 (08 May 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.14 (09 Apr 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.13 (14 Mar 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.12 (07 Mar 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.11 (16 Feb 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.10 (30 Jan 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.9 (29 Jan 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.8 (02 Jan 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.7 (10 Dec 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.6 (15 Nov 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.5 (20 Oct 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.4 (28 Sep 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.3 (13 Sep 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.2 (09 Aug 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.1 (08 Jul 1999)
Changes in release 3.23.0 (05 Jul 1999: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.22.x (Old; discontinued)
Changes in release 3.22.35
Changes in release 3.22.34
Changes in release 3.22.33
Changes in release 3.22.32 (14 Feb 2000)
Changes in release 3.22.31
Changes in release 3.22.30 (11 Jan 2000)
Changes in release 3.22.29 (02 Jan 2000)
Changes in release 3.22.28 (20 Oct 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.27 (05 Oct 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.26 (16 Sep 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.25 (07 Jun 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.24 (05 Jul 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.23 (08 Jun 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.22 (30 Apr 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.21 (04 Apr 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.20 (18 Mar 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.19 (01 Mar 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.18 (26 Feb 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.17 (22 Feb 1999: Production)
Changes in release 3.22.16 (05 Feb 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.15 (27 Jan 1999)
Changes in release 3.22.14 (01 Jan 1999: Gamma)
Changes in release 3.22.13 (16 Dec 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.12 (09 Dec 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.11 (24 Nov 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.10 (04 Nov 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.9 (19 Oct 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.8 (06 Oct 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.7 (21 Sep 1998: Beta)
Changes in release 3.22.6 (31 Aug 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.5 (20 Aug 1998: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.22.4 (06 Jul 1998: Beta)
Changes in release 3.22.3 (30 Jun 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.2
Changes in release 3.22.1 (Jun 1998)
Changes in release 3.22.0 (18 May 1998: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.21.x
Changes in release 3.21.33 (08 Jul 1998)
Changes in release 3.21.32 (30 Jun 1998)
Changes in release 3.21.31 (10 Jun 1998)
Changes in release 3.21.30
Changes in release 3.21.29
Changes in release 3.21.28
Changes in release 3.21.27
Changes in release 3.21.26
Changes in release 3.21.25
Changes in release 3.21.24
Changes in release 3.21.23
Changes in release 3.21.22
Changes in release 3.21.21a
Changes in release 3.21.21
Changes in release 3.21.20
Changes in release 3.21.19
Changes in release 3.21.18
Changes in release 3.21.17
Changes in release 3.21.16
Changes in release 3.21.15
Changes in release 3.21.14b
Changes in release 3.21.14a
Changes in release 3.21.13
Changes in release 3.21.12
Changes in release 3.21.11
Changes in release 3.21.10
Changes in release 3.21.9
Changes in release 3.21.8
Changes in release 3.21.7
Changes in release 3.21.6
Changes in release 3.21.5
Changes in release 3.21.4
Changes in release 3.21.3
Changes in release 3.21.2
Changes in release 3.21.0
Changes in release 3.20.x
Changes in release 3.20.18
Changes in release 3.20.17
Changes in release 3.20.16
Changes in release 3.20.15
Changes in release 3.20.14
Changes in release 3.20.13
Changes in release 3.20.11
Changes in release 3.20.10
Changes in release 3.20.9
Changes in release 3.20.8
Changes in release 3.20.7
Changes in release 3.20.6
Changes in release 3.20.3
Changes in release 3.20.0
Changes in release 3.19.x
Changes in release 3.19.5
Changes in release 3.19.4
Changes in release 3.19.3
InnoDB Change History
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.21, September 10, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.4, August 31, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.3, June 28, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.2, May 30, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.20, May 18, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.19, May 4, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.18, February 13, 2004
MySQL/InnoDB-5.0.0, December 24, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.17, December 17, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.1, December 4, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.16, October 22, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.58, September 15, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.15, September 10, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.14, July 22, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.57, June 20, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.13, May 20, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.1.0, April 3, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.56, March 17, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.12, March 18, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.11, February 25, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.10, February 4, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.55, January 24, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.9, January 14, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.8, January 7, 2003
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.7, December 26, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.6, December 19, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.54, December 12, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.5, November 18, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.53, October 9, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.4, October 2, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.3, August 28, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.52, August 16, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.2, July 10, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.51, June 12, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.50, April 23, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.49, February 17, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.48, February 9, 2002
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.47, December 28, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-4.0.1, December 23, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.46, November 30, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.45, November 23, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.44, November 2, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.43, October 4, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.42, September 9, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.41, August 13, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.40, July 16, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.39, June 13, 2001
MySQL/InnoDB-3.23.38, May 12, 2001
MySQL Cluster Change History
MySQL Cluster-4.1.7, (not released yet)
MySQL Cluster-4.1.6, 10 Oct 2004
MySQL Cluster-4.1.5, 16 Sep 2004
MySQL Cluster-4.1.4, 31 Aug 2004
MySQL Cluster-5.0.1, 27 Jul 2004
MySQL Cluster-4.1.3, 28 Jun 2004
D. Porting to Other Systems
Debugging a MySQL Server
Compiling MySQL for Debugging
Creating Trace Files
Debugging mysqld under gdb
Using a Stack Trace
Using Log Files to Find Cause of Errors in mysqld
Making a Test Case If You Experience Table Corruption
Debugging a MySQL Client
The DBUG Package
Comments about RTS Threads
Differences Between Thread Packages
E. Environment Variables
F. MySQL Regular Expressions
G. GNU General Public License
H. MySQL FLOSS License Exception
SQL Command, Type, and Function Index
Concept Index